ATTN: At the end of this teaching

ATTN: At the end of this teaching, is another teaching on how to use a modicum of Ancheint Hebrew (Aramaic) in understanding the Old Testement~! It is well written and very easy to understand, I believe those who read it, will find thier horizons widened and suddenly, became a lot clearer~!
There is even a small dictionary of words/terms that You can find, quickly and easily~! You can veiw it online here: OR just raed the poist if You should want to keep it simple~?
“Lean Not”
“For, behold, the Lord, Yahweh of host’s, doth take away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stay and the staff, the whole stay of bread, and the whole stay of water.”
(Isaiah 3:1 KJV)
“Note this! (The Lord GOD of the Heavenly Armies is taking away from Jerusalem and Judah everything that your society needs— all food supplies and all water supplies,
Isaiah lived and wrote during a time of spiritual poverty in the nations of Judah and Israel, as well as national decline. He foresaw and foretold in graphic detail the coming captivities of both nations, but was particularly concerned with the state and future of his homeland, Judah, and his hometown, Jerusalem.
The first several chapters of his book consist of a strong denunciation of the practices of the people of Judah. The nation was literally disintegrating due to rampant sin. In preparation for the coming national and ultimate judgments, Isaiah warned against personal pride and reliance on human resources. “The loftiness of man shall be . . . made low: and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day” (2:17).
In our text, the words “stay” and “staff” are the masculine and feminine forms of the same word, both derived from the word meaning “support,” translated “stay of bread.” Thus, Isaiah uses this idiom and the next several verses to teach that God will remove any semblance of support for this sinful people, whether mighty man, soldier, judge, prophet, seer, elder, captain, artist, orator, or mature ruler (3:2-4), for the purpose of humbling them, “the people shall be oppressed, . . . every one by his neighbor” (v. 5), and demonstrating that, (the Lord, Jehovah Himself)*(Yahweh), could be their only real stay or staff. “In that day shall the branch of (the LORD )*(Yahweh) be beautiful and glorious” (4:2).
The word “stay” is elsewhere translated “lean,” “rely,” or “rest.” “Trust in the LORD with all thine heart, and lean not unto thine own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths” (Proverbs 3:5-6). JDM
* Hebrew and Aramaic Terms
Word Meanings for Old Testament Study
Dennis Bratcher
These terms represent significant theological concepts in the Old Testament or are terms that are important to understand in order to interpret the Old Testament. As with any translation, there is often no precise equivalent of words across languages. So a translation is always a provisional rendering of the communication of the original. That simply suggests that care should be taken not to hang too much weight on single words in a specific translation. Likewise, it suggests that an adequate understanding of a translation must also entail some rudimentary knowledge of the original language and its cultural and historical background, as well as the nature and purpose of the material in which it is used. That does not mean that everyone must become an expert in Hebrew in order to understand the Old Testament (although it might help!). But it does mean that more needs to go into the effort to understand than just reading an English translation.
There are several factors that complicate trying to use English words to translate Old Testament Hebrew concepts and ideas.
1) The sheer span of time between the earliest stages of the Old Testament (c. 1,000 BC) and the modern world makes it difficult to understand the meaning of some terms. We simply do not know all the ranges of meaning of some terms, or the nuances of meaning they could take in different contexts. For example, the meaning of the word selah, often used in Psalms, has been totally lost even in Jewish tradition.
2) The historical and cultural contexts in which languages function are radically different between the biblical world and our own. Some terms, especially metaphorical ones, depend on a certain background of experience to communicate the meaning adequately. For example, the often-used metaphor of “water” as an object of conquest is nearly incomprehensible without understanding the role of water as a symbol of chaos and disorder in the ancient world (see Baal Worship in the Old Testament).
3) Closely related to this is the understanding that single words often function in a particular literary context that establishes a “semantic field” in which the term takes on a specialized meaning. Also, some authors may use a common word in a more specialized sense. This simply suggests that in some literary contexts a particular word may have a different range of meaning than in other contexts. For example, the idea of “serve” is conceptualized differently in priestly sections of the Old Testament than it is in the prophetic literature. And even within the book of Isaiah, the term “servant” takes on three different ranges of meaning in the three major sections of the book.
4) Words in most languages tend to have wide ranges of meaning depending on how they are used. While English tends to aim for precision in communication, Hebrew, as an Eastern language, depends far more on context and rhetorical shaping, as well as cultural and historical frames of reference, to carry the meaning of words. Many Hebrew words have much wider possibilities for meaning and carry a built-in ambiguity that may invoke several levels of meaning at once. For example, the term ruach (spirit, breath, wind, movement) is often used with interplay of the various meanings, as in Ezekiel’s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones (Ezek 37).
5) In a similar vein, some terms have become such huge theological concepts in the Old Testament from use within the community over centuries that they communicate far more than the single word itself could possibly mean. For example, such words as torah, covenant, and chesed have become larger than life and must be heard against the entire confessional background of Israel’s Faith.
6) The fact that Hebrew shares more of its worldview with the East than it does with Western ways of thinking further complicates understanding. Often, the modes of thought of the Ancient Near East are dramatically different than our modern scientific and technologically oriented ways of viewing the world. The assumptions of that way of thinking can easily lead us to misinterpret certain concepts. For example, the English term “perfect” is often used to translate a Hebrew term (tamam). However, while the term “perfect” is an attribute or quality term in English, the Hebrew word tamam is a relational term, meaning suitable or mature or appropriate. Hebrew had no direct equivalent of the English word “perfect.”
7) Two thousand years of Christian interpretation cast in radically different philosophical assumptions than was most of the Old Testament often causes us to hear the Faith of the early church when reading the Old Testament rather than hearing the Hebrew terms for what they communicated apart from that later accretion of meaning. For example, “salvation” means something quite different in the Old Testament than it does in Christian doctrine.
None of this means that we must despair of ever understanding these terms. But it does call for a careful and intentional effort in trying to hear what the biblical text communicates with these terms. We cannot just assume that a single English word used in translation says everything that needs to be said about the meaning. This also suggests to us that some meanings that we have accepted as clear and normative, upon closer inspection of the Hebrew terms that lie behind them, may need to be reexamined in light of what the Hebrew words actually mean in context.
This is a new section of the CRI/Voice web site that is under development.
The Terms
These terms are alphabetized according to a simplified transliterated English.
Hebrew Transliteration English
‘abodah [see also ‘ebed] N: service, work, worship
’adam N: man, human being, humanity
’adon; ’adonai or ’adonay N: master, lord; my Lord
‘am N: people
‘am ha’aretz N: people of the land, the people
’asherah; pl. ’asheroth N: Asherah
N: sin, iniquity, guilt
ba‘al N: husband, master, Ba‘al
bara’ V: create
basar N: flesh
berit N: covenant
chata’, hata’ V: go the wrong direction, sin
chesed, hesed N: grace, lovingkindness, covenant faithfulness
chozeh, hozeh N: seer
da‘at N: knowledge
dabar; n. pl. debarim V: speak; N: word
derek N: path, way
‘ebed N: servant
’eheyeh [see also YHVH, Yahweh] V/N: I will be/become, proper name for God
, ’el, eloah N: God, god
’elohim, pl. of ’el (see ’el) N: God, gods
’Elohim Tsebaot God of hosts
’El ‘Elyon God most high
’El ‘Olam Everlasting God
’El Ro’i God who sees me
’El Shaddai mighty God
’El berith covenantal God
’emet N: truth, faithfulness
gehenna N: Gehenna
goy N: people, gentiles
Hades N: Hades
halak V: walk, live
haram or charam V: devote to destruction
hinneni Part: here am I
’ish; fem form, ’ishah N: man, husband; woman, wife
[no such word in Hebrew]
Jehovah (see YHVH, Yahweh) Christianized name for God
kabod N: weight, honor, glory
ketib, ketibh V: write
ketubim N: writings
leb, lebab N: heart
mal’ak N: messenger
mashal N: proverb
mazzebah, massebah; pl. mazzeboth, massebot N:
melek N: king; V: govern, rule over
megilloth N:
meshiach N: anointed one, messiah
mishpat; pl. mishpatim N: justice
nab’i; pl. nebi’im N: prophet
nephesh N: life, person, soul
panim N: face; Prep: in front of
peshat N:
pesher N:
qadosh A: holy
qal A:
ra‘ N/A: evil, bad
ratsach V: to kill
rib N: controversy, dispute
roeh N: seer; V: see, envision
Ro’sh-Hashanah New Year
ruach N: wind, breath, spirit
satan N: adversary; V: oppose
shalom N: well-being, peace
she’ol N: Sheol
shophar N: ram’s horn
sed N: emptiness, demons
sa‘ir N: oat-demon
shophet; pl. shophtim N: chieftain, judge, warlord
shub V: turn, return, repent
tamam, tam N: whole, complete, blameless
tehillim N: praises
tob A: good, appropriate
torah; pl. toroth N: instruction, law
yada‘ V: know, have intimate relationship
YHVH, YHWH, Yahweh N: proper name of God
Yom Kippur Day of Atonement
-Dennis Bratcher, Copyright © 2011, Dennis Bratcher – All Rights Reserved
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