Due to the geographical and climatic characteristics, the architecture of housing construction and arrangement and living space arrangement in the North’s rural house are unique, reflecting a part of the cultural and technological treasures. The architecture of the people and talents of the residents here.
The house from ancient to present in the concept of the Vietnamese is not only the sheltering sunshade, but also the shelter to preserve the traditional culture, beauty of the family, where nourish the Vietnamese soul.
Pictures of banyan trees, water landing, communal yard, bamboo falls on shade on the village road, or garden plants, fish ponds … which are typical features of the village. Previously, wanting to enter the village, people had to go through the village gate. The gate was built of brick, standing horny, majestic as evidence of time, marking the sad memories of a lifetime. Through the gate of the village, we will enter the village with the system of shortcut as the fish bone, where to go, the house where the house is open gate is meet lane, through the alley is village. The village is surrounded by green bamboo trees.
Traditional village architecture in the North
The architecture of rural houses in the North of the old plain is quite similar, it is the simple one-storey houses, the ground close to the ground, the material mainly bamboo leaves, straw. The house includes: through the gate to the orchard, to the yard and then to the main house, the annex, the kitchen, the toilet, the stables, cattle, the garden behind the pond before, the surrounding tree fence, the side besides being surrounded by bamboo village … create ecological model closed garden – pond – cages.
The process of Vietnam traditional houses in rural areas in the North of the old plains is the accumulation of thousands of lives of farmers, their houses when built must be suitable for the natural environment, depending on the nature created. a sustainable ecosystem. Vietnamese people are very fond of choosing a place to build houses, based on experience and knowledge of the area of living, so that it is convenient to take advantage of the value of the land.
Our father has drawn many precious experiences in the process of choosing land, choosing to build housing, for example, "Take gentle wife, choose the south direction." Near the sea, in the monsoon area, in the four directions only south is to avoid the sunshine in the west (sun skewers), the cold wind from the north (northeast monsoon), the storm from the east and the wind is blowing Blows came from the south in the hot season. In addition, his father also rely on feng shui theory to find the land of concentration, happiness … in accordance with the destiny of each home when the foundation of the house.
The residents of the northern delta are usually made of oval, jackfruit or bamboo with solid structure with triangular trusses, linked by beams at the head and at the base of the column. Wool, jackfruit or bamboo after the selection, to avoid the termites and increase durability, before setting up the house they usually carry soaked in the ponds or lakes about 1-2 years. The house is usually made of three-tiered log structure, with better houses and better materials.
The roof of the house is designed with a large slope to drain rain water and avoid leaking, taking advantage of the space from the large slope to the shelves, more shelves for grain storage, corn and sweet potato … The walls create shade as well as prevent the rain splashing on the foot of wooden columns and clay walls. From there create a patio to help protect the sun (avoid direct sunlight into the house), while expanding the use of space for the house. Roofing material depends on the economic conditions of each family that may be tile or paintings.
To create cool space for the house, the ancient people knew how to use canopy, planting trusses around the house such as melon, cucurbits … form the sun shade naturally, while avoiding hot sun for people and cattle. , anti-glare from the light-colored walls around the house, just take vegetables for food.
The wall around the house has protection, dividing space, both insulated – especially in the west, to have decorative solutions combined with climate-controlled insulation such as pine, window, lime wall white or leave the natural color of the material, brick wall is not plastered but only pulse, creating a cool spacious space on the green grass, reduce the sultry of tile roof, brick yard. For clay walls are made very thick to create warmth in winter, cool in summer.
The house usually accounts for a relatively small proportion of the area, most of which are used to make vegetable gardens, flowers and fruit trees, fences … create fresh vegetable sources, shade harm the environment, sunshade, wind and shield the view into the house.
Folk experiences show the old man’s temperament: Growing thick, dense foliage like banana trees on the north face to prevent cold winds in the winter preventing solar radiation in the season. summer (the sun is in the north); Plant trees as tall as the south of the house to prevent the cool summer wind as well as not cover the sunshine in the house in winter (winter, the sun in the south). Therefore, the tools were selected when choosing planting next to the house "before the banana after".
The planting of trees around the house, creating gardens, gardening, in addition to the function of shade, climate change, decoration … people also take into account the exploitation of economic value. The garden is usually small scale with many kinds of plants and vegetables. Farmers take advantage of the leisure time to grow their crops, grow cash crops to provide additional food and other needs for the family, as seasonal rice cultivation is not enough to meet the demand for life. Garden plants include many valuable species for daily life of the Vietnamese: plants that produce food sources of vegetables, fruits, spices, plants for rituals, medicinal plants.
Thus, the way to deal with the natural factors shows the ability of adaptation and initiative of the people in the Red River delta in coping and utilizing nature when building living space, showing the harmony completely with nature. This is also the experience drawn over many years, generations of residents here, creating unique architecture in the construction of cultural life space that symbolizes the campus of the house with the scene and people, creating the symbol of Vietnamese village culture.